High Geodiversity地质多样性

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Although the geology comprises primarily pyroclastic deposits and lava,there are some areas of the property that are not covered by volcanic deposits and these geological inliers expose Cretaceous and Tertiary sedentary rocks, and granite.The volcanic landscape is dominated by shallow dome, or shield-shaped lava plateaus; many surmounted by scoria and tephra cones, while historically emplaced basaltic lava flows display a diverse range of surface types and land forms, and have been responsible for damming local rivers to create the lakes.

It is located on continental crust,a very long distance from any tectonic plate boundary. The field does not contain any large polygenetic volcano, but instead comprises 25 dispersed volcanoes developed from separate, relatively short-lived, eruptive episodes.

From the early period of the Pleistocene to modern time, the volcanoes in this area erupted intermittently. The earliest volcanic eruption occurred in the early part of the Pleistocene, approximately 2.1 million year ago, and mainly in the western area; then, volcanism became more intense. Volcanic activity was most intense in the middle period of the Pleistocene, during which the eruptions in the eastern area were more intense than those in the middle and western areas. Then, from the late Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene, the volcanic activity became weaker, but in the Holocene, it became intense again.

The volcanic activity in the area has a character of inheritance. Most volcanoes did not end their eruptions until they underwent several eruptive cycles. At many of the principal volcanoes, there may be more than one volcanic vent located close to the original, each formed during a separate eruptive episode. The volcanoes in the outer part of the area of Wudalianchi erupted earlier than those in the inner part; for example, the eruption of the Laoheishan and Huoshaoshan volcanoes in the inner part was the latest. The volcanism along the Wohushan-Huoshaoshan northeast-trending fault tended to migrate from the southwest to the northeast.

The volcanic fields in northern China are all monogenetic and are associated with a network of deep faults which cross the region. 

Chain 1 - the East Longmenshan Volcano and the East Jiaodebushan Volcano;

Chain 2 - the Molabushan Volcano, West Longmenshan Volcano and West Jiaodebushan Volcano;

Chain 3 - the Huoshaoshan Volcano, Laoheishan Volcano, Bijiashan Volcano and Wohushan Volcano;

Chain 4 - the North Gelaqiushan Volcano and South Gelaqiushan Volcano.

The northeast trending faults are the main ones controlling the volcanism, although secondary northwest trending faults also had some influence. For example, the Weishan Volcano, West Longmenshan Volcano and Xiaogushan Volcano are distributed along a single northwest trending fault, while the North Gelaqiushan Volcano, Bijiashan Volcano and Yaoquanshan Volcano are distributed along another. The larger volcanoes are normally located at the crossing points of the northeast-trending and northwest-trending faults.